He aha kā mākou e ʻike ai e pili ana i ka PFAS

E pili ana iā PFAS/PFOS/PFOA/PFHxS

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ʻO Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a me perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) he ʻāpana o ka ʻohana o nā mea i hana ʻia i kapa ʻia he per- a me ka poly-fluoro-alkyl substances (PFAS).

Nā mea per- a me ka poly-fluoroalkyl (PFAS) Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)
Aakika Perfluorooctanoic (PFOA)
Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS)

Loaʻa i ka PFAS nā ʻano noi like ʻole i ka hana ʻana i nā huahana mea kūʻai aku, e komo pū ana i nā kāpeti, nā lole, nā ʻili, nā mea pili meaʻai a me nā ʻatikala e like me ka mea kuke ʻole a me nā uhi pepa, me ka anti-water (water-proof / water-resistant), ka momona, ka aila a/a i ʻole nā ​​mea ʻili.

ʻO ka US EPA memo ma PFAS

Nui nā mea per- a me polyfluoroalkyl (PFASs), i kapa ʻia he perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), i ʻike ʻia ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa i ke kaiapuni, nā holoholona hihiu, a me nā kānaka.

Manaʻo nui ka EPA e pili ana i nā mea i kapa ʻia ʻo PFAS chemical long-chain.Hoʻomau kēia mau mea i ke kaiapuni, bioaccumulative i nā holoholona hihiu a me nā kānaka, a he mea ʻawaʻawa i nā holoholona laboratory a me nā holoholona hihiu, e hana ana i ka reproductive, developmental, a me nā hopena ʻōnaehana i nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua.

Aia kēia mau PFAS kaulahao lōʻihi i ʻelua mau ʻāpana:
ʻO nā ʻakika carboxylic perfluoroalkyl kaulahao lōʻihi (PFCA) me ʻewalu a ʻoi aku nā kalapona, me ka PFOA, a me ka perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs) me nā kalapona ʻeono a ʻoi aku paha, me ka perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) a me ka perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)

ʻO ka ʻōlelo US FDA e pili ana i nā kemika PFAS

Mai ka 1960s, ua ʻae ka FDA i nā papa ākea o PFAS no ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā mea pili i ka meaʻai ma muli o kā lākou lāʻau ʻole a me ka momona, ka aila, a me nā waiwai kūpaʻa wai.ʻO ka PFAS i ʻae ʻia no ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka pilina me ka meaʻai PFAS hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia e like me nā mea hōʻoiaʻiʻo i ka momona i nā mea ʻai wikiwiki, lawe i waho i nā pahu pepa, e pale ai i ka aila a me ka momona mai nā meaʻai mai ka lele ʻana ma o ka pahu.

Nānā ka FDA i ka ʻike ʻepekema hou e pili ana i ka hoʻohana ʻia ʻana o nā mea pili i ka meaʻai e hōʻoia i ka mālama pono ʻana o kēia mau hoʻohana.Ke ʻike ka FDA i nā pilikia palekana, e hōʻoia ka ʻoihana e hoʻoponopono ʻia kēia mau pilikia a ʻaʻole hoʻohana hou ʻia kēia mau mea i nā noi pili meaʻai.

Ma Ianuali 29, 2020, ua lohe ka Subcommittee Health o ka US House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Environment i kahi noi no kahi bila pili i ka PFAS (HR2827) e kuhikuhi i ka FDA e pāpā i ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka PFAS i nā mea pili meaʻai āpau e hoʻomaka ana i 2022. .

No ke aha mākou e hopohopo ai i ka PFAS

Ua kapa ʻia ʻo PFAS he "kemika mau", ʻo ia hoʻi i ka wā i hoʻokuʻu ʻia ai lākou i loko o ke kaiapuni, ʻaʻole lākou e nalowale maʻalahi a loaʻa ka hoʻomau ʻana i ke kaiapuni, ka neʻe lōʻihi a me ka bioaccumulation.

Ua ʻōlelo ka US EPA i ka makahiki 2016 e hiki i ka hoʻolaha ʻana i kekahi mau pae o PFOS a me PFOA ke hoʻopilikia i ke olakino o ke kanaka, me nā hopena i ka ulu ʻana o ka fetal a me ka pēpē, ka maʻi kanesa, ka pōʻino o ka ate, nā maʻi immune, nā maʻi thyroid, a me ka maʻi cardiovascular.

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ʻOi aku ka ikaika o nā mea PFAS ma USA

I ka makahiki 2006, kono ʻo EPA i ʻewalu mau hui alakaʻi nui (Arkema\Asahi\BASF Corporation\Clariant\Daikin\3M/Dyneon\DuPont\Solvay Solexis) i loko o ka ʻoihana per- a me polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) e hui i kahi papahana mālama honua me ʻelua. Pahuhopu: No ka hoʻokō ʻana e hoʻokō, ʻaʻole ma mua o 2010, kahi hōʻemi 95 pakeneka, ana ʻia mai ka makahiki 2000 baseline, ma nā hale ʻelua i hoʻokuʻu ʻia i nā media a pau o ka perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), nā kinikona precursor hiki ke wāwahi i ka PFOA, a pili kiʻekiʻe. nā kemika homologue, a me nā pae ʻike huahana o kēia mau kemika.E hoʻohiki i ka hana ʻana i ka hoʻopau ʻana i kēia mau kemika mai nā hoʻokuʻu a me nā huahana e 2015.

* Ua hoʻokō nā hui āpau i nā pahuhopu Program Stewardship Program PFOA.

ʻO nā mana paʻa o nā mea PFAS- Califronia Prop 65

Ma Nowemapa 10, 2017, ua hoʻohui ka California Office of Environmental Health Hazardous Assessment (OEHHA) i ka perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a me ka perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) i loko o ka papa inoa kemika Proposition 65 o Kaleponi, ua ʻike ʻia e hoʻopilikia i ka hānau ʻana.

Ma hope o ka lā 10 Nowemapa 8, pono e hāʻawi ʻia kahi ʻōlelo aʻo akaka a kūpono i kekahi kanaka me ka manaʻo a i ʻole i ʻike ʻia iā PFOA a me PFOS (mokuna 6.6, pauku 25249.6 [5]).

Ma hope o 10 Iulai 2019, pāpā ʻia ʻo PFOA a me PFOS mai ka hoʻokuʻu ʻia ʻana i loko o kekahi kumu wai inu (Mokuna 6.6, Pauku 25249.5 [4]).

ʻO California Proposition 65 ke Kānāwai Hoʻopalekana i ka wai inu a me nā mea ʻawaʻawa o 1986, eia nā kuhikuhi ma ka pūnaewele, *https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/about-proposition-65

ʻO nā mana koʻikoʻi o nā mea PFAS ma USA - ESHB 2658

Ma Malaki 21, 2018, ua kau inoa ʻo Kāpena Inslee o Wakinekona i ka bila HB2658 e kaupalena ana i ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā mea kemika perfluoroalkyl a me polyfluoroalkyl (PFAs) i loko o ka ʻeke meaʻai.

E pāpā ka bila i ke kūʻai aku, hāʻawi aku e kūʻai aku a hāʻawi i nā pūʻulu meaʻai i manaʻo ʻia e loaʻa i nā kemika PFAS ma ka mokuʻāina o Wakinekona, e hoʻomaka ana i Ianuali 1, 2022.

Nā mana o nā mea PFAS ma ʻEulopa

Ma ka lā 27 Dekemaba 2006, ua hoʻopuka pū ka Pāremata ʻEulopa a me ka ʻaha kūkā o nā Kuhina i ka Directive on Restrictions on the Marketing and Use of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (2006/122/EC).Pono ka Directive i nā mea me ka manaʻo a i ʻole ka nui like a ʻoi aku paha ma mua o 0.005% o ka PFOS ma ke ʻano he constituent a i ʻole element, a pau, nā huahana semi-finished a me nā ʻāpana i loaʻa ka 0.1% o PFOS me ka ʻike a i ʻole ka nui o ka 0.005. ʻAʻole kūʻai ʻia ka % o PFOS.

Ma ka 17 Malaki 2010, ua hoʻopuka ke Komisina ʻEulopa i ka Resolution 2010/161/EU, nāna i manaʻo e nānā pono nā lālā o EU i ka loaʻa ʻana o nā mea perfluoroalkyl (PFAs) i ka meaʻai i ka makahiki 2010 a me 2011.

Ma ka 14 Iune 2017, ua hoʻopuka ka Official Journal of the European Union i Regulation (EU) 2017/1000, e hoʻohui ana i ka perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), kāna mau paʻakai a me nā mea pili i ka PFOA i Annex 17 (List of Restricted Substances) o ka REACH Regulation.Wahi a nā lula, ʻaʻole e hana ʻia a waiho ʻia paha nā ʻatikala a i ʻole hui pū ʻia ma mua o 25ppb o PFOA a me kāna mau paʻakai a ʻoi aku ma mua o 1,000 PPB o nā mea pili i ka PFOA ma ka mākeke e hoʻomaka ana mai 4 Iulai 2020.

Ma ka 10 Iulai 2017, ua hoʻolaha ka European Chemical Agency (ECHA) ua hoʻohui ʻia ka perfluorohexyl sulfonic acid a me kāna mau paʻakai (PFHXs) i ka papa inoa o nā mea i manaʻo nui ʻia (SVHC).

Nā mana o nā mea PFAS ma Denmark

Ma Denmark, mai Iulai 1, 2020, pāpā ʻia ka pepa a me ka papa meaʻai meaʻai i hoʻohana ʻia e nā mea per- a me polyfluoroalkyl (PFAS), e waiho ma ka mākeke.

Ua hoʻokomo ka Danish Veterinary and Food Administration i kahi waiwai hōʻike e hiki ke kōkua i ka ʻoihana e loiloi inā ua hoʻohui ʻia nā mea fluorinated organik i ka pepa a me ka papa.ʻO ka waiwai hōʻailona he 20 microgram organic fluorine no ka gram pepa.Pili kēia me 10 microgram organic fluorine no ka square decimeter o ka pepa, ke kaumaha ka pepa he 0.5 grams no ka decimeter square.Manaʻo ʻia ka ʻike ma lalo o ka waiwai hōʻailona ma ke ʻano he haumia hope ʻole.No laila, hiki i nā hui ke hoʻohana i ka waiwai e hōʻoia ʻaʻole i hoʻohui ʻia nā mea fluorinated organik i ka pepa.


Ka manawa hoʻouna: ʻOkakopa-18-2021